This page provides an overview of some projects undertaken by Bolt & Yurdal Consulting ApS. 

  • Frequency designation for Medical Body Area Network System (MBANS) 
BoY assisted to Philips (The Netherlands) to develop a European regulation and to have the necessary frequency band designated for the operations of MBANS system in Europe. A system reference document has been developed and approved by ETSI (by ERM TG30), compatibility studies were done by CEPT/EEC SE24 group , and a regulation was developed by CEPT/ECC (SRD/MG group) which was included in ERC Recommendation 70-03. The band 2483.5-2500 MHz was designated to MBANS at the end of these studies. Finally, a harmonised standard (EN 303 203) was developed and approved by ETSI/ERM which was published in December 2014. 

  • Review of the licensing and assignment processes for the CITC (Communications and Information Technology Commission) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
In the framework of a project led by MSI dealing with the review of the regulatory framework in Saudi Arabia (including the update of the national table of frequencies, revision of the licensing fees, review of the licensing policy), BoY  reviewed  the licensing and frequency assignment processes in order to propose revisions based on the "best practices" found in other countries. In addition, solutions were proposed in order to address the congestion issues reported by the CITC in some bands (PMR, Fixed Services...). Proposed changes to the legislation in Saudi Arabia was implemented by CITC.

  • Frequency designation for Narrow-band Point-to-Multipoint (nP2M) paging system

BoY acted as the rapporteur for the development of a system reference document for nP2M systems by TG DMR of European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). After developing and having it approved by ETSI, BoY coordinated the necessary activities within the Frequency Management working group of CEPT/ECC Committee (WG FM). At the end of these studies, led by BoY within WG FM, the 430-470 MHz band was designated to nP2M system as a tuning range. Also, nP2M system was recognised by this way and included in the CEPT/ECC deliverables, such as ECA Table and EFIS database.                   


  • Worldwide frequency allocation for automotive radars

A worldwide frequency allocation process has been initiated by the automotive industry, led by Robert Bosch of Germany, in 2010. The aim was to have the 77.5-78.0 GHz band allocated by the ITU World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15) to Radio Location Service for use by automotive radar in accordance with WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.18. BoY acted as the coordinator of the issue at the ITU level by chairing the relevant sub-working group within ITU-R WP 5B. BoY played a major role for the development and approval of Report ITU-R M.2322 which covers systems characteristics and compatibility of automotive radars operating in the frequency band 77.5‑78.0 GHz for sharing studies. BoY contributed to the report by conducting sharing studies (SEAMCAT and MCL calculations) between the automotive radars and incumbent services (Amateur, Amateur Satellite and Radio Astronomy) to which the 77.5‑78.0 GHz band allocated. The report concluded that automotive radars are compatible with the incumbent services, so that the 77.5‑78.0 GHz band can be allocated to radio location service for use by automotive radars. 

Based on this report, WRC-15 Conference agreed to allocate the 77.5‑78.0 GHz band to radio location service for use by automotive radars.         


  • Training of market surveillance officers for the implementation of R&TTE Directive

As part of a EU project, led by the British Standardisation Institute (BSI), BoY provided training sessions for the market surveillance and conformity assessment staff of the Turkish telecommunication regulator and customs officers for the proper implementation of the R&TTE Directive of the EU. The training covered all requirements of R&TTE Directive, including the practical application of these requirements.

  • Dispute resolution between MMDS system and Broadcasting Satellite Network

BoY prepared a report to assess the coordination requirements for Multi-channel multipoint distribution system (MMDS) of an EU country and the Broadcasting Satellite (BSS) network of a neighbouring EU country, both operating in the Ku band frequencies. The report explains the ITU coordination procedures between the services to which the frequency band is allocated to both of them on a primary basis. BoY also coordinated the situation with ITU space and terrestrial services departments and mediated the conflict between the MMDS operator-related administration-ITU by also contacting that EU administration.


  • Resolution of “black marketing” for “metering” systems

BoY helped a Danish “metering” manufacturer to access the market in a EU country which was not able to access properly due to the black propaganda of a bigger German “metering manufacturer”. BoY contacted the Croatian Telecommunications Regulatory Authority and mediated the resolution of this black marketing case.

  • Report development for frequency designation of Wireless Industrial Applications (WIA)

BoY provided support to IFAK (Institut f. Automation und Kommunikation - Germany) in the development of an ECC Report dealing with the possible introduction of Wireless Industrial Applications (WIA) in the frequency range of 5725 to 5875 MHz. The results of those studies have been published as ECC Report 206 at As a consequence of the results given in ECC Report 206, a revision of ERC Rec. 70-03 (Regulatory instrument in Europe for Short Range Devices) was developed in order to allow for the introduction of WIA in this frequency range. The figure below illustrates the case where over a factory/plant, 10 production halls are deployed, each of them contains cells where wireless industrial applications could be deployed in order to control the production on the site instead of using a wired infrastructure. The deployment of wireless infrastructure is expected to be more flexible and less expensive than the use of a wired infrastructure.  

As a follow up of this project, BoY attended to WP 5D in 2016 in order to follow the discussions relating to WRC Agenda Item 9.1.8 dealing with Resolution 958 (WRC-15) - Urgent studies required in preparation of WRC-19 - Narrowband and broadband machine-type communications infrastructures.


  • Reports dealing with PMSE (Programme Making and Special Events) systems

In the framework of CEPT/ECC FM 51 group, BoY provided support to the APWPT (Association of Professional Wireless Production Technologies) to develop ECC Report 206  providing information about PMSE usage during exceptional events such as the Olympic Games or the Tour de France. This report also addresses the different sectors of the PMSE industry: Audio links, Video PMSE and Service Links.        


  • Compatibility studies for Audio PMSE (Programme Making and Special Events) in the frequency range 1350 - 1400 MHz and 1492-1525 MHz

In the framework of WG SE 7, BoY provided support to the APWPT (Association of Professional Wireless Production Technologies) in the development of an ECC Report dealing with compatibility between PMSE and existing systems in the frequency range 1350 - 1400 MHz and 1492 1525 MHz. The reports were published as ECC Report 245 and ECC Report 253. The development of those reports led to the identification of the band 1350 - 1400 MHz for Wireless Microphones (see R

  • Development of compatibility studies using SEAMCAT 

SEAMCAT stands for Spectrum Engineering Advanced Monte Carlo Tool and is developed in the framework of WG SE. BoY is following the development of SEAMCAT through regular attendance to the STG in order to develop compatibility studies. We have contributed to the studies of various ECC Reports such as ECC Report 245 and ECC Report 253 by providing simulations based on SEAMCAT. We have also developed internal report/studies based on specific demands outside the framework of the ECC.

  • Spectrum Regulation & Standardization for Sub-metering 
BoY has been working with EVVE (European Association for the consumption-dependent billing of energy costs) since 2011. The main aim was to work for the spectrum regulation and standardisation for sub-metering systems operating in the core SRD UHF band (863-870 MHz). Also, the extension band 870-876 MHz was also considered. BoY represented EVVE in ETSI (TG 28 and ERM) and CEPT (SE24 and SRD/MG) for many years. EVVE supported Fatih M. Yurdal of BoY to chair CEPT/ECC SE24 group (responsible for compatibility studies for SRDs) since 2016. BoY involved in the revision process of European standard EN 300 220 (Short Range Devices (SRD) operating in the frequency range 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz) and the development of ECC Reports 200 (Co-existence studies for proposed SRD and RFID applications in the frequency 870-876 MHz/915-921 MHz) and 207 (Adjacent band co-existence of SRDs in the band 863-870 MHz in light of the LTE usage below 862 MHz).

  •   Use of SRD applications in cars in the band 5725-5875 MHz  
BoY assisted ASECAP (Association Européenne des Concessionnaires d'Autoroutes et d'Ouvrages à Péage - European professional Association of operators of toll road infrastructures) to develop an ECC Report on the use of SRD applications in cars in the band 5725-5875 MHz. ECC Report 277 (Use of SRD applications in cars in the band 5725-5875 MHz) was developed in this context.

  • Space-X satellite broadband service licensing project    
BoY worked with Regent Square Group to assist investigating market access requirements and licensing for the Space-X system in various countries, such as, Austria, Germany, Hungary, China, Kazakhstan, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Turkey, Cote d'Ivoire, Taiwan... The project covered all issues related to market access, such as;  Frequency allocations and users, internet services provisions, required authorization/licensing, business registration requirements, fees, type approval, legal interception and data retention.    

  • Wireless Power Transmission (WPT)
In the recent years, WPT became one of the hot topics. ETSI, CEPT and ITU are involved in the studies on WPT. BoY has been working with Bosch on WPT for some years in all these entities.
BoY participated in all work related to WPT in ETSI/ERM TG28 for the development of three deliverables:
- System Reference document (SRdoc) TR 103 409 (Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems for Electric Vehicles (EV) operating in the frequency band 79 - 90 kHz);
- European Harmonised Standard  EN 303 417 (Wireless power transmission systems, using technologies other than radio frequency beam, in the 19 - 21 kHz, 59 - 61 kHz, 79 - 90 kHz, 100 - 300 kHz, 6 765 - 6 795 kHz ranges);
- System Reference document (SRdoc) TR 103 493 (Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems operating below 30 MHz)
BoY took the lead in the studies within ITU-R on WPT by chairing the WG 1B-1 of WP 1B, which is responsible to develop deliverables for the regulatory and frequency management issues. BoY also participated in the work of ITU-R WP 1A for the technical and operational matters related to WPT. 
BoY also involved in the studies done by CEPT/ECC SE24 and SRD/MG on WPT compatibility and regulatory issues including the development of ECC Report 289 (Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems for electrical vehicles (EV) operating within 79-90 kHz band).  BoY continues working on WPT within ECC, representing WPC (Wireless Power Consortium).        

  • ETSI Specialist Task Force 541: Signal interferer handling, a new RX requirement to cover the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the RED directive

    On Behalf of BoY, Marc Le Devendec is one of the 6 experts hired in December 2017 by ETSI to develop a generic description of the "hybrid receiver requirements" concept and related text, and test procedures for implementation into the harmonised standard. The new concept is not intended to be a replacement for classical receiver parameters; instead it should be considered as an alternative to be used for possible use cases of radio devices where the classical receiver parameters described in the ETSI Guide (EG 203 336, clause on Rx, where alternatives are allowed) cannot be specified or tested. The STF has already developed a Technical Report TR 103 566 dealing with the “Evaluation status of receiver requirement on Signal interferer handling”. The STF is now finalizing a TS on signal interferer handling, providing:

    • Preparation of generic text which could be used in ETSI HEN

    • Preparation of a solution/text that the manufacturer can provide the information to test-houses.